IC packaging is the final step in the semiconductor fabrication process before testing and shipping devices to customers. A large number of different types of packages exist and new ones continue to be developed. In addition, integrated circuit dies are often developed for direct connection to a substrate. In flip chip systems the IC is connected by solder bumps to a substrate. All of these packaging technologies require new material. VEM is working with a breadth of packaging suppliers to develop new solutions to the challenges they're facing.