VEM Vacuum Engineering and Materials



  • Chemical Symbol: Pd
  • Atomic Number: 46
  • Atomic Weight: 106.42
  • Density: 12.023 g·cm−3
  • Melting Point: 1828.05 K
  • Boiling Point: 3236 K
  • Heat of Fusion: 16.74 kJ·mol−1
  • Heat of Vaporization: 362 kJ·mol−1
  • Molecular Heat Capacity: 25.98 J·mol−1·K−1
  • Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105.4 nΩ·m
  • Thermal Conductivity: 71.8 W·m−1·K−1
  • Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1


Light-Emitting Diodes, or LED's are devices that emit infrared or visible light when charged with an electric current. LED's are rapidly being adopted as an efficient and low energy solution in a broad range of applications from indicator lamps to general lighting. LED's are fabricated on compound semiconductor substrates such as GaAs and GaN. VEM is working with many of the largest suppliers of LED devices. We're helping them develop new materials and new solutions to their R&D and production challenges.

Our components include: